This study aimed to determine the role of BRAC’s polli shomaj in targeting effectiveness in beneficiary selection of 100-day employment generation programme (EGP). Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in this study. The process of selecting beneficiaries by the union parishad chairmen and ward members was more or less similar despite the presence of polli shomaj. Nepotism, bribery, vote bank and poverty were the criteria to select the beneficiaries. The quantitative findings show that there was no significant difference in the targeting effectiveness in beneficiary selection between areas with and without polli shomaj. These results were also consistent with the findings from national data. There were many reasons for this. Firstly, the characteristics of polli shomaj as a group such as membership, frequent interaction, interlocking roles, leadership, collective perception and interdependent goals were important but few of these were found in them. Secondly, group cohesiveness was essential to achieve the goal of polli shomaj, but the necessary factors for group cohesiveness were lacking in polli shomaj. In addition, the neglect of proper policy to form polli shomaj and lack of fostering them efficiently were considered as constraints for the polli shomaj to succeed in beneficiary selection. Thirdly, corruption of the EGP authority was found as a prime hurdle for not including the polli shomaj as targeted beneficiaries.