ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to explore the impact of Gender Quality Action Learning (GQAL) Programme initiated by Gender Justice and Diversity (GJ&D) Programme during the period of 2007-2011. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches to achieve its goals. The data collection tools used here were survey, focus group discussion (FGD), case study and census. Here, a village with maximum GQAL intervention in 2007- 2011 was selected for census to know the .......
ABSTRACT The Essential Health Care (EHC) programme, one of the key development efforts of BRAC, provides an integrated package of preventive and basic curative services through community health workers (CHWs). The programme aims to improve health and nutrition of women and under-five children in rural Bangladesh. However, impression about regional variation and inequity in use of services from both public and private sectors is needed to identify the gap and further intensify the .......
ABSTRACT The geographical settings and circumstances of the chars make life both economically and socially challenging. Realising the necessity for advancing initiatives, Char Development and Settlement Project (CDSP) was initiated in 1994, of which the fourthphase of the project is currently undergoing. To assess the impact of the livelihood and social component offered under the integrated development activities of CDSP, we planned to collect two rounds of data on the demography and .......
ABSTRACTEvidence shows that ultra-poor households are typically unable to participate in mainstream poverty alleviation programmes. In response, an international NGO called BRAC in Bangladesh implemented the Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction: Targeted Ultra-Poor (CFPR: TUP) programme that explicitly targets those living below $0.60-$0.70/day. The innovative scheme combines the provision of income generating assets with an integrated approach that includes multifaceted training .......
ABSTRACT Prior to the 10th national election in Bangladesh, in 2013, political atrocity reached its peak with unprecedented number of deaths and injuries. Bangladesh’s political violence typically reaches its peak during every national election. Moreover, in 2013 due to resistance from the ruling party, instead of partisans’ acts of political violence were mostly outsourced to low income, slum dwelling people. In accordance with adults, children, for whom the street is a central .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYBACKGROUNDEnsuring the condition of safe water, and sanitation facilities is the early step to behaviour change. However, mere provision of facilities does not ensure the desired health benefits. To address this issue, BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programme has been working to improve health of the rural poor through comprehensive interventions. To improve the monitoring of WASH outcomes and to assess the quality of hygiene practice, an improved system called .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYRATIONALEGroundwater is the main source of irrigation for increasing crop production in the north-west region of Bangladesh. The knowledge of ground and surface water interactions reveals that the changes affect one another. The availability of groundwater for irrigation contributed to manifold increase of the crop production and productivity of Bangladesh, particularly in the north-west region. Ho wever, increased demand of food due to additional population, poor water .......
The objectives of the study were to explore the effects of GQAL (Gender Quality Action Learning) programme, initiated by the Gender Justice and Diversity programme of BRAC, on men in the areas of changing gender roles, shifting gender norms andreducing VAW (violence against women) at household and community levels. Qualitative research methods were employed to achieve the objectives. Data collection techniques used in this study were: case studies and focus group discussions (FGDs).After .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis study provides baseline profile of the adolescents from both SoFEA intervention areas and adjacent areas. Adolescent girls from the intervention areas are divided into two groups: girls from new SoFEA intervention areas and girls from areas with SoFEA intervention on the existing ADP clubs (hereafter denoted as ADP-layered). The adolescents surveyed from new SoFEA and ADP-layered SoFEA are not necessarily all participating members of the programme, because the baseline .......
It is evident that the risk of death can be lessened by ensuring access to safe water,  sanitation and improved hygiene practices. With this propitious wisdom, BRAC  WASH programme envisage improvement in health by ensuring access to safe  water, sanitation and by providing hygiene education to all including men, women,  adolescent girls and boys, and children. But it is given that poverty and physical  facilities for life living and the environment act as impediments towards improving this  .......
This paper aims at evaluatingthe impact of BRAC‘sprogrammesin Uganda. The study allows usto investigates the effectiveness of BRAC‘s "microfinance plus" approach in Uganda through detecting the impact of microfinance, agriculture, and health programmes separately as well as combined impact of ―microfinance and agriculture‖, and ―microfinance and health‖ programmes. The key outcome variables of interest are household income, asset, and vulnerability. The study follows quasi-experimental design .......
There is hardly any argument over the necessity of targeting the ultra-poor in development interventions. However, identifying and scaling up effective strategies to improve livelihoods remains a challenge. A few recent pilots have found an approach that combines transfer of productive assets, and intensive supports and supervision with a set of coordinated interventions following a time-bound exit plan successful. This paper evaluates one such pilot, known as ‘ultra-poor graduation pilot’ .......
In September 2008, the Government of Bangladesh embarked on the first phase of a 100-day Employment Generation Programme (EGP) for the poorest and jobless poor. This endeavour came in response to the soaring food price. NFPCSP was requested by the Government to assist in the appraisal of the programme through an evaluation of its first phase and the preparation for the assessment of the impact of the entire programme.
Internalized stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is prevalent in Bangladesh. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on PLHA is required to reduce this and to minimize its harmful effects. This study employed a quantitative approach by conducting a survey with an aim to know the prevalence of internalized stigma and to identify the factors associated with internalized stigma among a sample of 238 PLHA (male=152 and female=86) in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that there .......
This research aims to look at household responses to a tsunami warning that took place in south-east coastal areas of Bangladesh on 12 September 2007. The study was conducted in both the mainland and islands of Cox’s Bazar district. We examined the impact of the warning by measuring the effectiveness of the warning, reasons behind evacuation or failure to do so, experience of evacuating and staying in shelters, and loss in assets. We also examined whether evacuees will trust future warnings .......
 Increase in the number of inhabitants in urban slums has become a challenge on the health system of Bangladesh for tackling maternal and under-five child morbidity and mortality. To address this engaging issue, BRAC implemented a community based essential maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH)-care service package programme, called MANOSHI in 2007. The programme targeted the slums in six city corporations of Bangladesh through the community health workers (CHWs) called BRAC Shasthya .......
AbstractIodine deficiency persists as a major health problem in Bangladesh. Despite thepresence of a government law that prohibits sale of non-iodized salt, a large volume ofsalt that is available in local market is ‘open’ or non-iodized salt or falsely labeled asiodized. Addressing this, BRAC-HNPP in partnership with Global Alliance for ImprovedNutrition (GAIN), UNICEF, Government of Bangladesh, and Micronutrient Initiatives inBangladesh (MI) initiated an intervention of delivering .......
AbstractIt is evident that the poor, especially women and children are highly vulnerable to theimpacts of climate change because of their limited adaptive capacity. In suchcircumstances, BRAC Disaster, Environment and Climate Change (DECC) programmehas been providing interventions (capacity building training and/or grant) on alternativelivelihood options so that poverty stricken women affected by disaster can adapt to thechanging environment. This study has been undertaken to understand .......
ABSTRACTBangladesh is one of the countries with high rate of infant malnutrition and the majorcause is inappropriate breast feeding and complementary feeding practices. To improvethe situation, both GO/NGO organizations are working intensively on the issue. Inpursuance of this, AED and BRAC became partners in the Alive and Thrive project(A&T) for improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices through motivationand counseling by BRAC’s volunteer community health workers .......
ABSTRACTPoor infant feeding practices is one of the major causes of undernutrition and stuntingin <5 children in Bangladesh. BRAC, in partnership with AED, is implementing Alive andThrive (A & T) programme to promote optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF)practices in rural Bangladesh to address this issue. The frontline health worker for thisproject is the community health worker of BRAC Shasthya Shebika (SS) who works ona voluntary basis, but gets some monetary return .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYTuberculosis (TB) is a global disease, which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths eachyear (WHO 2010). Bangladesh is the sixth highest TB-burden country in the world. TBtreatment may be complicated when malnutrition also coexists in patients. TB hasbeen found to coexist with malnutrition among patients at the beginning of treatment inboth developed and developing countries (Zachariah et al. 2002, Onwubalili JK 1988,Kennedy et al. 1996, Harries et al. 1988). Nutrition .......
ABSTRACTIntroduction: In Bangladesh about two-thirds of total food consumption is rice asmain staple food, especially for the poor, in addition to some vegetables, pulses andsmall quantities of fish, meat, egg, etc. if and when available. The similar dietarypattern and practices were found for under-two children in the intervention areas ofAlive and Thrive (A&T) project where mothers were counseled on appropriatecomplementary feeding practice as a component of Infant and Young .......
Abstract:The BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programme reached 150 upazilas (sub-districts) in collaboration with the Government of Bangladesh since 2006. This study assessed the changes in the use of tubewell water and water safety measures in the households in the 11 upazilas of Bangladesh after BRAC WASH interventions. Data were collected from 6,600 households where 3,812 tubewells were traced in baseline (2006-7) and 3,591 tubewells in midline (2009). Most of the households .......
The Meghna-Dhonagoda Embankment (MDE) is an example of a flood control scheme which also regulates irrigation and drainage of the area inside it. This intervention in the natural functioning of the environment - intended to reduce the often catastrophic impacts of flooding on mankind - itself may have substantial impacts on the environment and humans in the short and long run. These impacts are not well understood and thus are not fully taken into consideration at the time of inception of the .......
This report is based on the findings of the case tracking study of 35 BRAC borrowers from Matlab RDP over a period of one year. Tracking began in July 1996, and in all cases more than three months had elapsed before tracking began. The issues examined in this study are: background of the borrowers, use of loan, participation of the women in the use of loan, economic return on investment, borrowing from other sources, mobility of the borrowers or the decision making by the borrowers in their .......
 ABSTRACT: Bangladesh, being a developing country, has made substantial progress in providing food to its largepopulation base over the years, yet the country has been facing challenges from lessening gaps between thefood intake for a person in a day and the minimum requirement for balanced nutrition from diet food.Empirical studies have shown that dietary preference and nutrition are closely linked with each other wherediet could be seen as an integrated concept of ecological .......
 Operational Challenges in Providing Primary Education Services in Wetland (Haor) and Tea Garden Areas of Sylhet Division in BangladeshNawra Mehrin,Tanjeeba Chowdhury,Samir Ranjan Nath Abstract This report is based on a review of BRAC’s programme on education specifically examine the challenges, coping strategies and the existing barriers to implementation of the BRAC Programme in eight marginalised upazilas of Sylhet Division. In 2011, BRAC selected these upazilas for .......
Research report on Property Rights Initiatives (PRI) of BRAC Human Rights and Legal Aid Service (HRLS) programme Motivation and Performance: BRAC’s Land Entrepreneur ProgrammeFakir Md Yunus, Toby Norman, Jaideep Prabhu AbstractBRAC’s Human Rights and Legal Aid Services Division has launched the Property Rights Initiative in Rangpur Division of Bangladesh to address the issues land ownership and conflict in 2011. A key component of this initiative has been the creation of a new class .......
                                                      AbstractBangladesh has achieved remarkable success in establishing a uniform mass orienteduniversal system of education in the primary sector. However, in terms of the quality ofeducation, students’ learning achievement and reduction in dropout did not attain similarbreakthrough. For providing quality education, BRAC, World Food Programme andRangpur Dinajpur Rural Services initiated a project in Fulchari and Sundarganj .......
Abstract Medhabikash Udyog (which means initiatives for promoting talent) is a social experiment which aims to provide study opportunities to deprived meritorious students through a scholarship scheme. To do this, programme has set several criteria for the selection process such as academic results and living standards of the beneficiaries which are precisely measured before initiating the scholarship scheme. BRAC Primary School (BPS) graduates, Adivasi and physically challenged .......
A collaboration between BRAC and the student association Sefa of the University of Amsterdam investigated the cause of perishable food loss and suggested a solar energy based cold storage solution in 2013. Following the recommendations of this project, a second phase of research was initiated with the aim of investigating the economic and technical feasibility of a solar-biomass hybrid cold storage to prevent the loss of potatoes at the farmer level. This research has two main objectives: to .......
Abstract One in every third under five children in Bangladesh is anemic as children are generally fed traditional family food often lacking adequate bioavailable iron. Home based fortification of food with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) has recently been established through research as an effective way to address this problem. BRAC initiated promotion of MNP usage in 2009. The present study undertaken to map MNP usage among 6-59 months old children in the Maternal, Infant and Young .......
Client satisfaction, the degree of fulfillment of patient’s desired expectations and preferences for healthcare, is one of the outcome variables for assessment of the quality of health services. Until now, the experience and perception of satisfaction of clients and providers with obstetric care facilities in rural areas of Bangladesh is unknown. This study aimed to determine the perceived level of satisfaction of rural clients in the northern region of Bangladesh who received facility-based .......
The rural economy of Bangladesh is largely occupied by primary agricultural activities resulting low-productivity of inputs and unemployment of rural labour. Due to limited soil productivity, the possibility of escalating rural output from harvest-oriented activity alone has not been successful. Hence, for increasing productivity, diversification and valueaddition in rural economy, advancing agribusiness has been proposed as a plausible approach. The ‘Bangladesh Agribusiness Development .......
This case study was elaborated in the frame of the project ´Pro-poor Resource Governance under Changing Climates‘, a joint research initiative of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS). The project analysed pro-poor resource governance under the conditions of climate change and it aimed to identify resource management institutions that reduce livelihood vulnerability. It was carried out in collaboration with .......
This report investigates the loss of perishable vegetables at different stakeholder levels in the supply chain in different geographical regions of Bangladesh, rural, semi-urban and urban. The study goes further by investigating the potential value added through cold storage facilities and the effect its introduction may have on different stakeholder relationships. The study then addresses the potential of utilising solar energy to facilitate the introduction of cold storage facilities. The .......
ABSTRACT Since its inception, BRAC Education Programme (BEP) has been including children with disabilities in its various educational initiatives. To foster this inclusion initiative BEP developed Children with Special Needs (CSN) unit in 2003. From 2014 this unit launched Neuro Developmental Disability (NDD) centres for poor communities in Bangladesh in cooperation with Health, Nutrition & Population Programme (HNPP) of BRAC. Till June 2015, four centres were established; one in a .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  Across the world, civil society legal empowerment programmes are making important contributions to securing access to justice and inclusive development. From assistance navigating justice processes to independent mediation services, civil society programmes deploying community-based paralegals provide practical avenues to seek rights and resolve disputes. Such programmes add to the range of access points to justice, offer additional avenues to pursue government .......
 SUMMARY OF THE REPORTThe main purpose of this report is to have a thorough documentation and understanding of the profiles of the ultra poor population covered by the Urban CFPR-TUP programme. For the purpose of comparison of the targeted ultra poor households with other households and also for assessing spillover effects, information was also collected on non-participant households from the same community. Information on the livelihood indicators of national urban population have been .......
Breastfeeding is the most natural and unique way of infant feeding for the survival, healthy growth and development of a baby. Improper marketing and promotion of breast milk substitutes (BMS) often affects a mother’s choice of breastfeeding. Moreover, in unhygienic conditions, BMS carries a high risk of infection and can be fatal for infants. The International Code of Marketing of BMS was adopted in 1981 by the World Health Assembly in response to the realization that poor infant feeding .......
This paper provides a brief account of the situation of poverty in Bangladesh indicating some major steps needed for poverty reduction. The focus is on building good governance for fighting poverty. The role of NGOs in building good governance and how this can be done has been illustrated with some cases. In this context the need to strengthen local governance and create coalitions within the civil society for collective efforts have been discussed.
Thesis, Master Program in International Health International Maternal and Child Health Department of Women’s and Children’s Health Uppsala University Background: Malnutrition is widespread and has been recognized as a public health problem in Bangladesh. People living in absolute poverty are more susceptible to infection, disease and malnutrition. Nearly one-quarter to one-third population of Bangladesh live under extreme poverty – they are called the ultra poor. These ultra poor are .......
As the major part of the population the poor have the rights to get real justice but such entitlements have remained largely theoretical. The legal system remains obscure and inaccessible. It is ill equipped to deal with claims and claimants that are supported by the nominal forms of evidence required under the law: witness, legal documents such as marriage, divorce, land registration deeds and so forth. On the other hand in rural areas in particular implementation of the rule of law for the .......
Educational studies in Bangladesh are mostly quantitative in nature – broadly based on survey methods. However, the cases prepared for this study employed qualitative research techniques, where an ethnographic approach was emphasised. The case studies focused on the factors that made certain schools more successful than others. A number of issues related to school, community, administration, teaching, attitudes and leadership, along with other associated links came out from the research. The .......
Depending on methods used, recent estimates suggest that as much as 20 to 34% of the population of Bangladesh live in extreme poverty. This is a significant number of people requiring immediate and special attention, if Bangladesh is to fulfill its commitment towards attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which underpins its Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). Focusing policy attention towards the extreme poor is important, because existing opportunities may not work very well .......
BRAC approaches microfinance as a key instrument to build ladders of opportunity for the poorest people, who tend to be left out. BRAC’s main point of departure from conventional thinking is that, although the poorest do need subsidy-based programs to supply their immediate food needs, microfinance can play a fundamental role in constructing a long-term, sustainable foundation for improving food security and livelihoods. However, this is unlikely to happen automatically. BRAC’s experiences .......