ABSTRACT Human communications between and among BRAC staff working at various levels and communities they are working in is an important aspect. It seems to be more important for BRAC Education Programme (BEP) when they started the process of transformation from a philanthropic mode to a cost recovery model. This study, therefore, looked at the communication process of BEP after the introduction of cost recovery mode. Following a qualitative approach, information collection started in the .......
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTIONWorldwide rural people have lack of access to eye care services leading to suboptimal uses of existing services. In Bangladesh, eye care services virtually not exist in the rural area and upazila (sub district) level, and eye care is mostly provided in secondary level hospitals located in district towns. Therefore, the BRAC Vision Centre is the first point of eye care facility in the community that provides comprehensive eye care services provided by the vision .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYINTRODUCTION AND METHODThis study mainly aims to examine whether the learning achievement of the students of BRAC non-formal education provision called BRAC Primary Schools or BPSs has been hampered during this transitional period. Hence, the students’ learning achievement, along with their background characteristics, school-related factors, and teachers’ and Programme Organisers’ (POs) assessment about student/school quality, was examined. A number of issues related to .......
ABSTRACTInformation of actual evapotranspiration (ET) is the key factor to determine the crop water requirements of a particular crop, which is an essential input for budgeting optimum irrigation water requirement. In order to quantify crop water requirement, this research focuses on finding out the ET of boro rice from remotely sensed image and meteorological data which may pave the way for better understanding of improved water management issues of paddy rice as well as efficient use of .......
 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYTuberculosis is a major public health concern in Bangladesh. The National TB Control Programme (NTP) of Bangladesh had been offering free treatment to TB patients but the package does not cover all costs especially indirect expenses. These expenses turn out to be catastrophic for the socially and economically marginalised population, who are affected by TB more. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) reflects the economic burden and barriers which negatively influence .......
ABSTRACT This study aims to determine parental willingness to pay for BRAC’s non-formal education service in urban slums. Data were collected from 948 households of 22 urban areas where BRAC Education Programme (BEP) intended to open schools with financial assistance from USAID. Bidding game version of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was adopted to predict community people’s willingness to pay. Household survey was the main method; however, some interviews with branch managers and .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BRAC operated a non-formal primary education (NFPE) programme for three decades on a philanthropic mode. It was possible due to financial support of the international development partners. Such support has started to shrink and might not be available in the near future as a result of the improved socioeconomic development of Bangladesh. In response, BRAC has made a strategic shift in its programmatic approach. The BRAC Education Programme (BEP) has been trying to be .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn 2014, BRAC designed a comprehensive, evidence-based intervention model to address the problems of violence against women and children through the Violence Against Women and Children initiative (VAWC). The VAWC model is being tested and refined in two districts: Comilla and Gazipur. This report synthesises the results of four action research studies that BRAC commissioned to generate insights to inform this process. BRAC selected four components of the intervention for .......
 Abstract BRAC initiated Computer Aided Learning (CAL) programme, the first ever in Bangladesh, to introduce ICT based materials in teaching-learning in 2004  Along with digital contents of Science, English and mathematics of secondary level, this programme provided basic ICT and content delivery training to the teachers of programme schools. A qualitative evaluation following the Realist Evaluation framework was designed to evaluate the programme mechanism, context and outcome. Data .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYSince independence, the growth of Bangladesh economy has been dominantly rural oriented where agricultural and infrastructural accomplishment have been contributing a major section. Additionally, slowed population growth reduced dependency burden and increased resource available for the rest of the family members, leading to improvement in quality of life. Despite such achievement, the economic development has not been uniform all across Bangladesh. Among 491 upazilas in .......
This paper aims at evaluatingthe impact of BRAC‘sprogrammesin Uganda. The study allows usto investigates the effectiveness of BRAC‘s "microfinance plus" approach in Uganda through detecting the impact of microfinance, agriculture, and health programmes separately as well as combined impact of ―microfinance and agriculture‖, and ―microfinance and health‖ programmes. The key outcome variables of interest are household income, asset, and vulnerability. The study follows quasi-experimental design .......
There is hardly any argument over the necessity of targeting the ultra-poor in development interventions. However, identifying and scaling up effective strategies to improve livelihoods remains a challenge. A few recent pilots have found an approach that combines transfer of productive assets, and intensive supports and supervision with a set of coordinated interventions following a time-bound exit plan successful. This paper evaluates one such pilot, known as ‘ultra-poor graduation pilot’ .......
In September 2008, the Government of Bangladesh embarked on the first phase of a 100-day Employment Generation Programme (EGP) for the poorest and jobless poor. This endeavour came in response to the soaring food price. NFPCSP was requested by the Government to assist in the appraisal of the programme through an evaluation of its first phase and the preparation for the assessment of the impact of the entire programme.
Internalized stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is prevalent in Bangladesh. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on PLHA is required to reduce this and to minimize its harmful effects. This study employed a quantitative approach by conducting a survey with an aim to know the prevalence of internalized stigma and to identify the factors associated with internalized stigma among a sample of 238 PLHA (male=152 and female=86) in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that there .......
This research aims to look at household responses to a tsunami warning that took place in south-east coastal areas of Bangladesh on 12 September 2007. The study was conducted in both the mainland and islands of Cox’s Bazar district. We examined the impact of the warning by measuring the effectiveness of the warning, reasons behind evacuation or failure to do so, experience of evacuating and staying in shelters, and loss in assets. We also examined whether evacuees will trust future warnings .......
 Increase in the number of inhabitants in urban slums has become a challenge on the health system of Bangladesh for tackling maternal and under-five child morbidity and mortality. To address this engaging issue, BRAC implemented a community based essential maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH)-care service package programme, called MANOSHI in 2007. The programme targeted the slums in six city corporations of Bangladesh through the community health workers (CHWs) called BRAC Shasthya .......
AbstractIodine deficiency persists as a major health problem in Bangladesh. Despite thepresence of a government law that prohibits sale of non-iodized salt, a large volume ofsalt that is available in local market is ‘open’ or non-iodized salt or falsely labeled asiodized. Addressing this, BRAC-HNPP in partnership with Global Alliance for ImprovedNutrition (GAIN), UNICEF, Government of Bangladesh, and Micronutrient Initiatives inBangladesh (MI) initiated an intervention of delivering .......
AbstractIt is evident that the poor, especially women and children are highly vulnerable to theimpacts of climate change because of their limited adaptive capacity. In suchcircumstances, BRAC Disaster, Environment and Climate Change (DECC) programmehas been providing interventions (capacity building training and/or grant) on alternativelivelihood options so that poverty stricken women affected by disaster can adapt to thechanging environment. This study has been undertaken to understand .......
ABSTRACTBangladesh is one of the countries with high rate of infant malnutrition and the majorcause is inappropriate breast feeding and complementary feeding practices. To improvethe situation, both GO/NGO organizations are working intensively on the issue. Inpursuance of this, AED and BRAC became partners in the Alive and Thrive project(A&T) for improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices through motivationand counseling by BRAC’s volunteer community health workers .......
ABSTRACTPoor infant feeding practices is one of the major causes of undernutrition and stuntingin <5 children in Bangladesh. BRAC, in partnership with AED, is implementing Alive andThrive (A & T) programme to promote optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF)practices in rural Bangladesh to address this issue. The frontline health worker for thisproject is the community health worker of BRAC Shasthya Shebika (SS) who works ona voluntary basis, but gets some monetary return .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYTuberculosis (TB) is a global disease, which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths eachyear (WHO 2010). Bangladesh is the sixth highest TB-burden country in the world. TBtreatment may be complicated when malnutrition also coexists in patients. TB hasbeen found to coexist with malnutrition among patients at the beginning of treatment inboth developed and developing countries (Zachariah et al. 2002, Onwubalili JK 1988,Kennedy et al. 1996, Harries et al. 1988). Nutrition .......
ABSTRACTIntroduction: In Bangladesh about two-thirds of total food consumption is rice asmain staple food, especially for the poor, in addition to some vegetables, pulses andsmall quantities of fish, meat, egg, etc. if and when available. The similar dietarypattern and practices were found for under-two children in the intervention areas ofAlive and Thrive (A&T) project where mothers were counseled on appropriatecomplementary feeding practice as a component of Infant and Young .......
Abstract:The BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programme reached 150 upazilas (sub-districts) in collaboration with the Government of Bangladesh since 2006. This study assessed the changes in the use of tubewell water and water safety measures in the households in the 11 upazilas of Bangladesh after BRAC WASH interventions. Data were collected from 6,600 households where 3,812 tubewells were traced in baseline (2006-7) and 3,591 tubewells in midline (2009). Most of the households .......
The Meghna-Dhonagoda Embankment (MDE) is an example of a flood control scheme which also regulates irrigation and drainage of the area inside it. This intervention in the natural functioning of the environment - intended to reduce the often catastrophic impacts of flooding on mankind - itself may have substantial impacts on the environment and humans in the short and long run. These impacts are not well understood and thus are not fully taken into consideration at the time of inception of the .......
This report is based on the findings of the case tracking study of 35 BRAC borrowers from Matlab RDP over a period of one year. Tracking began in July 1996, and in all cases more than three months had elapsed before tracking began. The issues examined in this study are: background of the borrowers, use of loan, participation of the women in the use of loan, economic return on investment, borrowing from other sources, mobility of the borrowers or the decision making by the borrowers in their .......
 ABSTRACT: Bangladesh, being a developing country, has made substantial progress in providing food to its largepopulation base over the years, yet the country has been facing challenges from lessening gaps between thefood intake for a person in a day and the minimum requirement for balanced nutrition from diet food.Empirical studies have shown that dietary preference and nutrition are closely linked with each other wherediet could be seen as an integrated concept of ecological .......
Abstract As food prices rise and climate change effects on food security, development of agricultural productivity has become the key issue all over the world. To achieve high crop productivity, use of appropriate quality seed is one of the essential factors, which leads to ensure high yield and alleviate rural poverty. This paper aims to reveal firstly; the farmers’ perception and satisfaction of using BRAC hybrid seeds in the stage of purchase, germination, cultivation, profitability .......
  AbstractViolence against Women and Children (VAWC) is a significant obstacle to reduce poverty, and achieve gender equality that is closely associated with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). BRAC’s five years strategic plan (2016-2020) includes reducing violence, which indicates BRAC’s priority and concern to continue and develop its interventions for addressing violence against women and children. Part of this endeavour includes understanding existing gaps in the interventions and .......
Abstract The Rohingya refugee crisis is not a new phenomenon in Bangladesh, it has been a contentious issue that has strained Myanmar-Bangladesh relations since the late 1970s. On the recent time after 25 August 2017, the crisis became a big concern, the huge influx of FDMN have fled violence and human rights violations. The latest influx has increased the number of Rohingya population living in the camps of Cox's Bazar from one million to three million. This incident has made the .......
Abstract Post-primary Basic and Continuing Education interference of BRAC Education Programme popularly known as PACE desired to enhance the quality of secondary education of Bangladesh. This comparative ethnographic study intended to understand if any cultural changes took place in the schools due to PACE. For this, data on school daily life, teaching-learning process, use of the library, school management, leadership, values and gender issues were collected from three intervened and .......
Abstract There has been a continued influx of the ‘Forcibly displaced Myanmar Nationals’ (FDMN) across the border of Bangladesh and Myanmar since 25 August, 2017. As consequences, the large numbers of people (FDMN) have unexpectedly taken shelter in Bangladesh. Along with 307,500 Rohingya refugees now total 822, 500 FDMNs are living in various makeshift, unregistered and registered settlements of Cox’s Bazar in Bangladesh. So, it is realised that Bangladesh has been facing a severe .......
Executive summary The HRLS (Human Rights and Legal Aid Services) programme of BRAC has now its 517 legal aid serving clinics countrywide, which have been serving the poor community for first seeking of their help in the land measurement issues. Throughout the dynamic initiative of HRLS programme, a vast network of the communities has been proactive into the human rights violations. Today, HRLS continues to support a holistic legal aid services across the country. This initiative is .......
Abstract The South-West region of Bangladesh including the districts of Khulna, Bagerhat and Satkhira is regularly ravaged by cyclone and various other natural calamities with massive intrusion of saline water from the sea that render fertile agricultural soil into uncultivable land and poses serious challenges to food security. In 2009, BRAC initiated the Agriculture and Food Security Programme (AFSP) and employed climate adaptive technology by introducing saline tolerant varieties of .......
Journey Towards JusticeHuman Rights and Legal Aid Services of BRAC One cannot fail to observe that legal intervention initiatives of HRLS could save the poor, particularly women from the violence from their close relatives. Studies have provided the proof of increasing agency and empowerment in women due to providing knowledge and legal aid interventions. A significant number of examples of successful implementation of justice and women rights set up through justice system of the .......
Abstract Homebirth is regarded as gold standard and the premier standard of birth possible. Community Skilled Birth Attendants (CSBA) received a six-month training in and out of class at skilled birth attendant (SBA) training institutes, approved by the Government of the peoples republic of Bangladesh. The trainees are involved in assisting the safe and clean delivery at home in rural Bangladesh. Many CSBA are engaged in Government and non-government organisations in relation to providing .......
AbstractGlobally the status of iodised salt consumption is still low (1/3 of the world population).BRAC started building awareness among people on iodised salt consumption byintroducing Rapid Test Kits to check the presence of iodine in salt among retailers. Theobjective of the study was to understand the current situation on iodised saltconsumption and assess the knowledge, perception, practice and awareness ofconsumers and retailers regarding consumption of iodised salt. It was a .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYBACKGROUNDA great majority of adolescent girls from low and middle income countries including Bangladesh are malnourished. Nearly one third (29%) of the adolescent girls of Bangladesh are stunted and the most immediate cause of which is inadequate dietary intake of nutrient rich foods and diseases. Eating patterns and behaviour is one of the important determinants of proper nutrition which widely varied among adolescent girls. However, very little studies has been .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BRAC has mainstreamed nutrition under the MNCH programme since 2010. This component aims to fulfil its objectives through several strategies that focus on building the capacity of community health workers, establishing an effective community based integrated nutrition service delivery, and raising awareness and empowering communities to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and breastfeeding practices. BRAC trains two types of community health workers (Shasthya .......
ABSTRACT Since its inception, BRAC Education Programme (BEP) has been including children with disabilities in its various educational initiatives. To foster this inclusion initiative BEP developed Children with Special Needs (CSN) unit in 2003. From 2014 this unit launched Neuro Developmental Disability (NDD) centres for poor communities in Bangladesh in cooperation with Health, Nutrition & Population Programme (HNPP) of BRAC. Till June 2015, four centres were established; one in a .......
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY  Across the world, civil society legal empowerment programmes are making important contributions to securing access to justice and inclusive development. From assistance navigating justice processes to independent mediation services, civil society programmes deploying community-based paralegals provide practical avenues to seek rights and resolve disputes. Such programmes add to the range of access points to justice, offer additional avenues to pursue government .......
 SUMMARY OF THE REPORTThe main purpose of this report is to have a thorough documentation and understanding of the profiles of the ultra poor population covered by the Urban CFPR-TUP programme. For the purpose of comparison of the targeted ultra poor households with other households and also for assessing spillover effects, information was also collected on non-participant households from the same community. Information on the livelihood indicators of national urban population have been .......
Breastfeeding is the most natural and unique way of infant feeding for the survival, healthy growth and development of a baby. Improper marketing and promotion of breast milk substitutes (BMS) often affects a mother’s choice of breastfeeding. Moreover, in unhygienic conditions, BMS carries a high risk of infection and can be fatal for infants. The International Code of Marketing of BMS was adopted in 1981 by the World Health Assembly in response to the realization that poor infant feeding .......
This paper provides a brief account of the situation of poverty in Bangladesh indicating some major steps needed for poverty reduction. The focus is on building good governance for fighting poverty. The role of NGOs in building good governance and how this can be done has been illustrated with some cases. In this context the need to strengthen local governance and create coalitions within the civil society for collective efforts have been discussed.
Thesis, Master Program in International Health International Maternal and Child Health Department of Women’s and Children’s Health Uppsala University Background: Malnutrition is widespread and has been recognized as a public health problem in Bangladesh. People living in absolute poverty are more susceptible to infection, disease and malnutrition. Nearly one-quarter to one-third population of Bangladesh live under extreme poverty – they are called the ultra poor. These ultra poor are .......
As the major part of the population the poor have the rights to get real justice but such entitlements have remained largely theoretical. The legal system remains obscure and inaccessible. It is ill equipped to deal with claims and claimants that are supported by the nominal forms of evidence required under the law: witness, legal documents such as marriage, divorce, land registration deeds and so forth. On the other hand in rural areas in particular implementation of the rule of law for the .......
Educational studies in Bangladesh are mostly quantitative in nature – broadly based on survey methods. However, the cases prepared for this study employed qualitative research techniques, where an ethnographic approach was emphasised. The case studies focused on the factors that made certain schools more successful than others. A number of issues related to school, community, administration, teaching, attitudes and leadership, along with other associated links came out from the research. The .......