R E D S E M I N A R
Impact of BRAC WASH I Programme’s Implementation Services and Sustainability: Studies from 2007 to 2015
Nepal C Dey, Tahera Akter, Ratnajit Saha and Mahmood Parvez
Date: 11 August 2016; Time: 02:00 am to 03:30 pm; Venue: RED Conference Room (15th Floor)
Research Findings Presentation
This post-end line study aimed to identifying the current status of access to water in terms of quantity and quality, sanitation and hygiene practices in WASH-I intervention areas, and understanding the facilitating and impeding factors towards sustainability and continuity of the given interventions, through assessment of some key WASH indicators. Analysis revealed that use of tubewell water for different purposes mainly cooking, washing utensils, etc. at household level has increased significantly from baseline to post-end line, for both dry and rainy seasons. Arsenic test of high dependent tubewells revealed that about 91% and 82% tubewells were safe according to Bangladesh and WHO drinking water standard respectively. However, high regional disparities in arsenic contamination level was evident in some areas. Study upazilas in Noakahali district was found as the most severely arsenic contaminated area where only 18.5% tubewells was safe according to Bangladesh standard. Tubewell risk based on the WHO’s sanitary inspection indicators revealed that overall 43% of tubewells were at some level of risk based on point sources of pollution. Use of sanitary latrines among the households increased significantly over the years, but breaking the water seal still remains a challenge towards increasing sanitation coverage. Majority of the households’ children had no fixed place to defecate, hence causing a great risk of fecal contamination of water sources and overall environmental pollution. Both knowledge and practice of using soap in hand washing after defecation slightly decreased at post-end line compared to endline, while a wide gap between knowledge and practice was still persistent. The study findings revealed a significant reduction in the prevalence of diarrhoeal disease over time in the BRAC WASH intervention areas over the intervention periods. But quality of practice decreased at post-end line thus prevalence of diarrhoeal disease increased at post-end line; probably due to the withdrawal of interventions such as promotion of hygiene education, periodic monitoring of households’ hygienic behaviour including checking cleanliness of latrines, and persisting knowledge and practice gap of hygiene behaviour. When asked about the amount wished to pay monthly if loan was taken for latrine, about half of the respondents were willing to pay some monthly installments which enables BRAC WASH prgramme’s strategy for making a joint project with BRAC’s Microfinance programme to develop a sustain loan project, providing loan for setting up new latrine facilities and repairment of existing latrines; specially to vulnerable groups (i.e. the ultra-poor and the poor) will be a huge step forward in materialising the new business model. Site specific intervention for reducing exposure of arsenic and risk of microbial contamination, and proper design of sanitary latrine are emerging issues to meet relevant target of sustainable development goal.
Chair: Prof Abdul Bayes, Director BRAC RED