Fewer females than males (1:1.7) were diagnosed with TB each year worldwide. Nonetheless, despite the prevalence of pulmonary TB in females appears to be lower, progression from infection to disease is as much as 130% higher in females aged between 10 and 44 years. But why are fewer females than males diagnosed with tuberculosis? What factors play role in making differences between males and females in help-seeking, diagnosis, treatment and its compliance? The objectives of the overall study were to:
i) document sex differences in key aspects of TB control;
ii) identify gender-specific barriers to case detection, appropriate treatment, adherence, and cure; and
iii) recommend potential interventions to ensure gender sensitivity in TB programmes and services, and thus improve TB control.