Social Obstacles of Primary School Enrolment in the Hard to Reach Areas

Utpal Mallick


Bangladesh has achieved remarkable progress in increasing the primary school enrollment rates over the past decades. The country has reduced discrimination against girls in accessing primary education. However, evidences from a census conducted in eight upazillas of Sylhet division in 2012 revealed that 30% of the children aged 5-14 years in hard to reach haor areas were out-of-school. Proportion of out-of-school children was much higher in Sulla and Companyganj (about 36% in each) upazillas, predominantly haor areas, of Sunamganj and Sylhet districts respectively. This study investigated the social obstacles to non-enrollment and dropout in primary schools of these two upazillas. Data were collected through qualitative methods. In general, some common obstacles including children’s’ personal, family, socio-environmental and school governance factors were identified as major causes to prevent non-enrollment and dropouts. Personal factors included children’s lack of interest in study, their free will, difficulties in following lessons etc.; family factors included parents’ lack of interest in schooling of their children, lack of parental support, poverty, migration, opportunity costs of schooling, child labour, inability to bear educational expenses etc.; socio-environmental factors included distance from school, lack of roads and problems with transportation, insecurity of girls, influence of school leavers etc.; school governance factors included inadequate teachers, crowded classrooms, poor quality teaching, lack of school monitoring and supervision etc. Considering these factors a number of policy recommendations have been made for future decision-making to improve enrollment and attendance of
students in the hard to reach areas.


Related information

  • Writer Name: Utpal Mallick
  • Published Date: Monday, 07 March 2016
  • Country: Bangladesh